Quiet Air Purifiers

If you reside in an area where there is a great deal of air pollution, you will want to consider shopping for quiet air purifiers. These devices not only provide you with clean air in your home, but can do so without making too much noise. It is not a good idea to live in a busy city where you are inhaling smog and other harmful substances everywhere you go. At least you can control the quality of the air in your home.

Air purifiers are necessary for your health if you live where the air is not the cleanest around. Respiratory problems can come about if you allow your lungs to take in this dirty air every day. You will save a lot of time and money in the long run if you invest in a purifier for your home today. Medical bills that could be incurred from taking in unclean air could be cost you a great deal more than even the most expensive air purifier.

If nothing else, these tools can help to cut down on allergies from pollen and other substances.

Quiet air purifiers not only help you live in a healthy manner, but they can also provide you with a more comfortable home. Many purifiers filter out odors, so you will have clean and fresh air that you breathe in. This is very effective for a home that is smoked in. Even if someone smokes just outside the door, the cigarette smell can travel into the home. The purifier will help to remove this scent from the air so no one will have to deal with it. Getting a silent purifier will give you fresh air without all the noise of other purifiers. This really comes in handy when you are trying to sleep or concentrate on working or reading.

Look for air purifiers that offer a HEPA filter.

These filters have passed specific standards set by the Department of Energy. With such a filter, you can remove 99.9% of all allergens and other substances from the air in your home. This will allow you to decrease the amount of dirt, toxins, and other particles that you breathe in on a daily basis.

As you can see, quiet air purifiers are a great investment, especially if you live in a busy, smog-filled city. Even if you live away from pollution, you may benefit from these devices if you are prone to allergies. It can help to filter out pollen, cigarette smoke, and other elements that could irritate your lungs and airways. Be sure to get one with a HEPA filter so you can be sure that you are making a wise investment into a device that will work effectively to remove harmful particles in the air.

Real Estate Equity – Investment Capital, Debt Consolidation or a Retirement Nest Egg?

There is a significant interrelationship between personal investment planning, credit purchasing and real estate ownership. On the face of it that may seem obvious, but the complexity of the interrelationship bears some scrutiny.

During the last quarter of the 20th century there was an amazing proliferation of the use of credit card purchasing. Credit card purchasing continues to gain use as a means for medium term financing for larger household needs, as well as, a means to spread over time individual fluctuations of income and other changes in the economy. Unfortunately, many Americans caught up in the economic prosperity of the several past decades have used credit cards to amass debt beyond or challenging their ability to repay.

It has been over two decades since Congress removed from the federal income tax code the ability to deduct interest payments on most credit/debt instruments “except” home mortgages. This Congressional enactment immediately catapulted the home mortgage market to the forefront. Suddenly, 2nd home mortgages and complete home refinancing became an attractive tax-incentivized debt consolidation tool. Of course, the financial sense of using a home mortgage for debt consolidation depends on several key factors. Among them is the rate of interest in the home mortgage marketplace, personal circumstances and a willingness to trade short-term debt for long-term debt on the prospect of real estate appreciation.

There continues to be substantial debate regarding the financial sense of maintaining equity in a home. In the simplest terms the two sides of the issue are:

Equity in a home can be put to better use. Essentially this means home equity that could be turned into cash should be invested in financial instruments that will outpace appreciation in the value of the home. This assumes that home equity cash can be put to more effective financial use. Second home or investment property purchases, tuition for education and high interest credit card debt are the more common uses of cash out refinancing or second mortgage financing and can all be considered a more effective application of equity depending upon circumstances.

* Conversely, as the home loan is paid down and home value appreciation develops the equity that builds eventually becomes a retirement nest egg. A debt free home is can represent utopia for those entering their retirement years.

As the debate goes on, the truth of the matter is that the best approach depends on factors such as economic climate, personal timing, property value appreciation and personal investment discipline.

Then there are the tax issues that play into nearly all financial decisions. As previously noted, home mortgages and second mortgages are tax deductible. This factor can be a significant decision point. The interest paid to the lender, as part of a mortgage payment, is deductible from federal and most state income taxes. Lenders provide notification of the amount of interest paid on a home mortgage during the tax year, and that amount may be itemized as a “qualified residence interest” deduction on federal, state and local income tax returns. The interest deduction is applicable to debt assumed for home ownership up to $ 1 million. The deduction applies to first and second mortgages, as well as, other debt instruments used to finance a primary residence.

Debt that is assumed for any purpose, but financed through a home loan, is also deductible so long as the amount of indebtedness does not exceed the lesser of $100,000 or the fair market value of the home.

Refinancing an existing mortgage to release equity without the additional benefit of an interest rate reduction may not be the most frugal approach. As with any mortgage there are specific closing costs associated with the transaction that is mostly based upon the amount of the loan. Conversely, a second mortgage for the purpose of extracting equity would normally create a much smaller loan and consequently lower closing cost.

When considering a second mortgage there are two distinct structures that normally come into play. The “Home Equity Line of Credit” generally offers a low interest initial interest rate and only requires the payment of the accumulated interest each month. The advantage of this structure is that it is a line of credit with a limit and the consumer only pays interest on the amount actually used. The risk factor is that it is a floating interest rate adjusted to a particular financial index such as “prime” or “cost of funds”. The option less adventurous borrowers elect is the standard fixed rate second mortgage amortized over 15, 20, or 30 years.

Regardless of the structure of the loan current lending criteria will likely restrict the amount of the mortgage to 80% “combined” loan to value (CLTV). This means that the maximum amount borrowed including the existing first mortgage cannot exceed 80% of the value of the property as determined by the lender’s evaluation.

Travel Tips for Extended Stay Apartments in Toronto

Travelers often find hotel rooms expensive and too small to be comfortable after a week or two. The corporate housing industry has sprouted up to provide an alternative: accommodations are offered in serviced furnished apartments so that business people and others staying in a city for a month or more can take short-term leases on corporate suites in the part of the city that is preferred by the customer. Some executives prefer peace and quiet while others like to be close to the action.

The city of Toronto is a destination that most Canadian business people will visit at some point if they are company executives.

Most major corporations maintain offices in Ontario’s capitol so there is an endless flow of airport traffic, many quality hotels, and countless restaurants to serve visitors. For some, the 0 or so per night hotel room cost is not the main issue when the company budget is large; the executives however have greater needs for privacy and they may not want to dine out for every meal.

The corporate housing solution provides furnished apartments in condo buildings with all the amenities they are used to at home. The apartments have twice the floor space of hotel rooms – this allows the visitor to relax and settle in.

It’s doubtful that anyone would look forward to the formalities of hotel living after being in office meetings all day. A hotel room is little more than a place to sleep and shower. The urge to get out of the room usually results in a trip to the lounge or other public place to be around other people so less work gets done.

The average cost of a corporate suite is about 0 per night so for half the price you get twice the space plus closets, couches, kitchens, dishwashers, laundry machines, internet access, dinnerware, parking, sauna, gym, and swimming facilities in the building – everything that can satisfy the needs of someone who has to be away from home for several months. Chances are they will be working on the laptop much of the time in these days of telecommuting and remote virtual offices.

The companies that arrange these suites find suite owners who will be away or who rent units for profit and put them in the reservation system which customers can access online. Photos of the suites can help the guests choose the décor they prefer. The corporate housing business makes a marginal profit in normal times but the companies in Toronto suffered losses in the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak scare of 2003 when, in April of that year the World Health Organization advised that all but essential travel to Toronto should be avoided due the enormous Chinese population coming and going from their home country, possibly spreading the disease. This magnified to near-quarantine levels and destroyed the tourist trade for many months.

The scare turned out to be nothing substantial but the effect on the city’s economy was profound and long-lasting. So was the fear of touching door handles, eating in restaurants, being in crowds, shopping in stores, and shaking hands with people. The ripple effect seemed to cost everybody money. Toronto was so paralyzed by the SARS scare that a concert called “Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto” featuring the Rolling Stones and AC/DC was put on to help revive the city’s tourist trade.

Emergency Response Systems For The Elderly

Emergency response systems are used to summon assistance during an emergency situation. An emergency response system is an electronic gadget and it is easy to operate. This device is also known as a Personal Emergency Response System. An emergency alert system is a basic no-fuss instrument as this device is specifically aimed at senior citizens and disabled people who live alone. This gadget is devised to provide immediate response as well as protection in case of any crisis. The emergency response system for elderly is a wise investment.

It will help the individual to get immediate medical assistance during an event of an accident. Because the longer the patient is left untreated, the intensity of the damage increases. Getting immediate help can make a difference between permanent damage and complete recovery. The emergency response system for elderly offers easy and instant access to help when the disaster strikes. People suffering from any serious medical condition or incapable of physical movements can use Medical Emergency Response System. Lightweight and portability are the two best features of emergency response systems that make it all the more comfortable. These devices are also available as medical alert jewelries. It can come in the form of a bracelet, necklace and so on. Your loved one certainly won’t feel awkward and self-conscious while wearing this medical alert jewelry. There are two kinds of emergency response systems available – monitored and the non-monitored. The non-monitored emergency system has two sections: • A handy radio transmitter with a built-in speaker phone • A console that has a connection to the phone line During an accident the user has to press the button of the transmitter sending a wireless signal to the console. Then the call is directly transferred to the 911 emergency services and the user can directly communicate with the 911 operator. There are three basic elements in a monitored emergency system: • A radio transmitter equipped with a help button • A console connected to the phone line • Connection to an emergency response center to receive the alert call During any emergency situation the user presses the “Help” button of the transmitter. This emergency button for elderly generates a wireless signal that is converted by the console into a digital signal. Then the digital signal is transmitted through the phone line to the monitoring center. The operator at the monitoring center talks to the individual to understand the intensity of the situation and the kind of assistance needed. In case the user cannot be communicated, the caregivers are alerted by the monitoring center. If the center fails to contact any caregiver, it immediately informs the appropriate emergency help like paramedics and so on. The emergency button for elderly sends signal to the center incase there is no speaker in the alert system. It is always a good idea to invest in an emergency response system. It can contact the emergency services if needs arise and immediate help can save your loved one.

Cutting Corners – How to Build a Healthy Family

Do we all sometimes forget to floss? Brushing your teeth alone will leave your mouth only about 60% clean. Although it is something awkward to do, flossing is imperative in your teeth cleaning process as it breaks up and removes the plaque from the gum line and teeth where your toothbrush cannot reach. Within just two short days of not flossing, plaque can turn into hard calculus, which is composed of salt, food, and other debris. This causes bad breath, gingivitis and ultimately periodontal disease, which occurs when the body’s immune system cannot clear the bacterial and toxins in the mouth. There is also a proven connection between sever gum disease and an atherosclerosis, which is a condition where arteries get clogged up. But it is bad enough having to walk around with a terrible smelly breath.

Therefore ultimately try to floss every day, but is you just cannot, then swish water around and through your teeth after brushing your teeth as it has been shown to reduce bacteria, but this is only for a once in a while solution to not flossing.

Even slept with your make-up on? Although leaving your make-up on when you go to bed seems like a great idea at the time, especially after a late night out or you are just lazy, you are not doing your skin any good at all. Wearing foundation to bed can cause your pores to clog up, which leads your skin to break out and have blackheads. And not only is sleeping with foundation not good, your mascara fragments will dislodge into your eyes while you sleep and could cause painful corneal abrasions. Just keep some pre-moistened make-up removal pads at hand for these occasions when you have little time for makeup removal, or are just not in the mood for doing it right now, your skin and eyes will thank you for it.

Do we award ourselves fewer hours to sleep? We compromise our health by sleeping less. Men who sleep fewer than five hours a night are at risk of becoming obese and also have high levels of blood sugar, which could lead to diabetes. It has also been concluded that a lack of sleep triggers off a hormone in the blood, and this hormone stimulates your appetite. Sleep disorders are very common and also under-diagnosed especially in woman. Therefore it is really important, for both men and woman, to have seven to eight hours of sleep to prevent poor concentration, irritability, depression, fatigue and even obesity which can often times lead to other health problems as well. To curve this problem, start by limiting your food intake before bed time, stick to regular bed times, and give yourself fifteen minutes to fall asleep, if you don’t just get up and do something until you are sleepy, like reading. Do not watch television or work on your computer. Also use herbal sleeping tables or teas to get you sleepy. If you feel these tips do not work to help you sleep better, visit your doctor for some further help and advice.

Reading in dim light, although reading in bad lighting increases tension, concentration and strain, causing headaches and sore eyes these symptoms are not permanent. Suboptimal lighting can create a sensation of having difficulty in focusing. It also decreases the rate of blinking and leads to discomfort from drying eyes. The important counterpoint is that these effects do not persist. But avoid unwanted headaches by switching on more lights or invest in a reading light for where you are most likely to sit down and read your book.

Not wearing sunglasses is a very good habit we all seem to brake from time to time. Whatever the reason for this may be, your skin is not the only part of your body that will be damaged from over exposure to the sun. Your eyes are also at risk of UV rays, and reflections from shiny objects. Like white buildings and water and metal. These subject the eyes to more than 12 times more light than what is needed. UV rays are invisible to the naked eye, but are high energy rays of light, and it is through this light that a reaction is caused in your eye tissue. And one this has occurred it cannot be reversed. When spending a lot of time where there is a lot of glare and not enough adequate protection, you can develop a short term condition known as photokeratitis; this is reversible sunburn on the cornea of the eye. This damage causes eye pain, sensitivity to light and the sensation of having sand in your eye constantly. Cataracts, which is a cloudy formation on the lens inside the eye, or the yellow areas on the whiles of the eye may appear after too much sun exposure as well. Then there is also Pteryguim, this is where tissue growth happens on the whiles of the eye, and can result in blocked vision and exposure to UV rays will also bring about eye cancer as well. It is better to have a pair of UV ray large wraparound sunglasses kept away in your car, bag and at home so you have them with you and ready to use whenever the need arise. Also get your whole family to do the same, especially the younger family members too, protecting everyone’s eyes will help build a healthy happy family.

Something not too many of us do, but still too many do, and that is biting nails. Your nail splits, so you just take it upon yourself to just bite of what has been broken off. You think this is a good idea at the time, but in fact it is a bad idea! And besides your nails just looks terrible, your fingernails are actually dead cells made of the same stuff as your hair, which is a protein called Karatin. So when you bite your nails, you risk transferring infectious organisms between your mouth and your fingers, and this could result in a bacterial or yeast infection of the nail bed. Therefore it is better to pack clippers and an emery board in your bag, or in a place where you will be the most times during the day. Then make sure you wash your hands properly, thoroughly and regularly throughout the day.

And now that you know what the risks are that you are really putting your health at, next time it may be better to just rethink taking those convenient shortcuts, but rather take these tips to heart and put them to good use. These can be really beneficial to you but also to your family, and if you are anything like me, these ideas can be put to good use on how to build a healthy family.

How To Raise Real Estate Investment Capital

Why Your Rich Uncle Won’t Invest with YOU!

Have you ever had a rich friend, uncle, or neighbor that will not open up their wallet to do business with you? There may be many reasons they refuse to do business with you. Let’s look at three common reasons and what you can do to get their attention:

1. Friends and family do not want money to get in the way of relationships. Disagreements over money have caused many rich families to become divided. One way around this is to create a company and make them a partner. Show them how investing in our company is no different from investing in a company in the stock market (except you both have more control). Set clear expectations of what each of you will provide to the company. If you’re smart, you’ll show them all the things you will do and all they have to do is write a check and examine the monthly/quarterly reports you send them. Your friends and family might also be more comfortable if you have other investors as well. There are many ways you can ease their fears and finding what those fears are is a good first step.

2. They don’t understand the investment. There is an old saying, “A confused mind says no”. Just because someone has accumulated some wealth does not mean they understand real estate investing. Here’s where you have to be very clear on what you do. You can’t overwhelm your investors with the blow by blow details. They need to know what you will do with their money, how they are protected, what their return will be and when they will receive payment. That is not to say you should hide any pertinent details, however they don’t care that you will be painting the rooms off-white.

3. You lack credibility. Let’s face it, unless you have a huge investment portfolio you are still somewhat unproven. And for that matter, friends and family have known us at our worst (they remember we got a D on a test back in the third grade). This is where your board of advisors and partners become extremely important. While Aunt Susie might be willing to loan you a couple hundred dollars, she wants to know her $100K is going to come back to her. If you have done some deals, make sure to highlight them in written format. Additionally, correctly chosen business partners or advisors with experience can also increase your credibility. To help with your personal credibility put together a professional looking credibility kit. To help with the credibility of the deal, put together all the numbers, pictures and a summary of the investment in a professional manner. (Personally I did not invest with a known “guru” because the presentation wasn’t done professionally). The details in the presentations matter.

Not all of your friends, family or neighbors with money will do business with you. If you want to increase your success rate then make sure you are sending out a clear, concise, and professional message. After you’ve done a few successful investments, they’ll be asking you to get involved.

Information on Internet TV Broadcasting

Internet television is a television service distributed via the internet. Some internet television is called as catch up TV. There are two forms of viewing the internet television i.e. simply downloading the program to the user computer or by streaming the content directly to media player. With the Internet TV broadcasting system, user can choose to watch the program or television show from an archive of programs or from a channel directory.

With the increase in the TV on demand market, these on demand websites or applications have become essential for major television broadcasters. Every night the use of on demand television, reach the zeniths at around 10 pm. Most of the service providers offer several different formats and quality controls, so that the service can be viewed on many different devices. During the peak times, the BBC iPlayer transmits 12 GB (gigabytes) of information per second.

Over the course of a month, the iPlayer sends 7 PB (petabytes) of information.

Most catch up services used peer-to-peer networking, in which users downloaded an application and data would be shared between the users rather than the service provider giving now commonly used streaming method. Now most services providers have moved away from the P2P systems and are using the streaming media. Now, you can watch any TV station in the world by tuning to Internet TV broadcasting. You can access the internet and watch your favourite TV shows live. The TV lovers can easily catch up with their favourite TV shows at any time on the internet, as per their convenience. You can broadcast the video recording of your own shows 24 hours a day. With the assistance of experts, you can broadcast your own discussion and live interview on your own TV, thus in a way you can advertise your own services to the world.

One of the leading providers of satellite services is the Belgium Satellite Services (BSS) that includes multi-media over satellite, DVB-RCS solutions, Radio and internet TV broadcasting and broadcast solutions, C band uplink , TDM/TDMA solutions.

The teleport services or telecommunication port is the centralized location that provides the right to use advance bandwidth services. BSS provides teleport services leasing to their customers and relies on the two state of the art teleport services; one is at Lessive and another at Liedekerke. The antenna size of these stations is ranging from 8.1 meters to 32 meters working in Ku band satellite system, EKU, DBS and C band.

Jobs & Career Employment After You Have Graduated From University

University graduates are still sought after, which makes a degree in this difficult financial climate worth its weight in gold. Graduate positions have actually increased over the last year, during the recession, and this is leading companies promoting their HR policies of capturing the best minds straight from university.

Jobs in IT, accounting, mechanical engineering, bio sciences are particularly impressive for the graduate as firms in these sectors offer high salaries and many graduate services that announce jobs, like MilkRound will advertise all of these particular jobs. Some jobs are obviously with companies that could feel the pain of the credit crunch but with any gain of experience, you will become immediately more employable even if the worst does happen to you.

Obviously qualifications and skills will get you so far, but with many graduates applying for the same jobs, how can you set yourself apart and differently then the rest? Well the answer is in your character traits, and making them visible to the recruiter. An attitude of enthusiasm, self- motivation and determination will go a long way in any job interview, some companies who offer jobs at entry level, will make a decision based on this alone!

Obviously verbal and writing skills are a necessity and having problem solving skills and being a team player will also endear you to the employer. It is also important to apply for jobs that you are skilled to do. Obviously jobs with 40k salaries look great and you’d love to be on that one, but you need to stay realistic and gain experience in your first few years after university, so apply for jobs you are happy to do.

If you have a Masters degree of an even higher education award then larger businesses in certain sectors may head hunt you, this is certainly true in the past in the banking, insurance and retail management positions. If you have just a bachelors degree then there are many opportunities out there but it will take you longer to get there!

Working with Employment Agencies – Picking One which Fits into your budget!

Employment agencies are the most useful choice for anyone, who wish to change or find jobs .Nowadays the look for jobs are becoming very hard even when using the normal methods. Today some people are willing pay a particular sum on the agency, provided the agency finds them a good placement. The experienced businesses most often have collaborations with various companies in numerous industries .At often times these agencies would be the just one providing opportunities that cannot be found any place else. You will find agencies which are dedicated to any type of jobs they give. Therefore people from specialized fields like medical care and executive levels can approach these agencies.

“Staffing agency’ is the one other name for the employment agencies. These agencies offers temporary staffing methods of companies which might be in need of workers. Here, the employees do not need to pay the agency any amount of cash as it is the company which contacted the agency. These organizations may help companies find people for those stages of work, from the computer professionals to day’s laborers. The period of time of the agencies work may vary from your day to your months. It is rather present with get the Companies to employ a short while worker permanently, provided their skills be satisfactory

Know of the sort of individuals who the employment office can be ready to work with, before approaching one. There are several agencies which cope with the placements of top level executives, and so they generally expect experienced those that have managerial, leadership qualities. There’s also agencies which will not consume men and women without per year or two experience with regards to providing workers to the medical and computer industries. Folks who currently have work will find it challenging help the agency’s schedule .While temporary workers have zero choice and work the given schedule, understanding that you can find probability of them being hired.

Industrial or general employment agencies can provide jobs for individuals who want jobs for any short period of time period . In terms of employment agencies the restrictions are less as well as the opportunities are lots of. Whether you have completed your school or college , these agencies will find you jobs accordingly. From time to time you will find organizations who claim to be employment agencies and they cheat the innocent with hopes of providing them with good job opportunities. Become acquainted with your neighborhood agencies and don’t let yourself to use any organization that needs contact through 1-900 numbers. The legal employment offices have zero problem should the contract is fully being read before you sign them.

Clinical explanation of Bronchiectasis

Permanent dilatation and distortion of the bronchi is called bronchiectasis. What is it’s effect to human health?

Etiology and Pathogenesis:

Most of the cases of bronchiectasis result from acquired causes.

• Obstruction to the bronchus due to any cause leads to distal collapse of the pulmonary segment. The pull on the bronchi by the collapsed alveoli leads to dilatation of the bronchi. In the initial stages this is reversible and the bronchi regain their normal size when the lung expands. If the obstruction persists, accumulation of mucus occurs distally, infection supervenes and the bronchial wall is destroyed permanently.

This results in permanent dilatation. The infective organisms are streptococci, pneumococci, Klebsiella, and anaerobes.

• Bronchiectasis may follow several viral infections without passing through the obstructive phase.

• Congenital defects in the bronchial wall lead to bronchiectasis. The classical example is Kartagener’s syndrome, which is characterized by dextrocardia, sinusitis, and defects of ciliary function in the bronchi and non-motile sperms.

• Middle lobe bronchiectasis is a sequel to pulmonary tuberculosis. This is caused by obstruction to the middle lobe bronchus by tuberculous glands. This is called “middle lobe syndrome” or “Block’s syndrome”.

Clinical features:

The clinical picture is very chronic, extending over several years.

The common site of lesion is the left lower lobe. Though children may be affected, usually symptoms manifest in early adulthood or middle age. Males are affected more than females. Digital clubbing is a prominent sign, sometimes being associated with hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.

Postural cough with the production of large quantities of purulent and foul smelling sputum is the presenting complaint in most cases. On keeping for sometime, the sputum settles into 3 layers as described under lung abscess. Hemoptysis may occur frequently. This may be mild or severe. Recurrent infections such as pneumonia may develop. Repeated affection of the same lobe or segment should suggest the possibility of underlying bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis sicca is the condition in which bronchiectasis presents with mild or severe hemoptysis without purulent sputum.

Physical examination may reveal impairment of the percussion note and diminution of respiratory sounds over the presence of coarse, persistent leathery rales. At times bronchiectasis may present with one of its complications. These include massive hemoptysis, recurrent pneumonia, emphysema, septicemia brain abscess, and cor pulmonale. Anemia develops in long standing cases due to chronic sepsis and recurrent hemoptysis. In untreated cases secondary amyloidosis may develop.

Diagnosis:

Bronchiectasis should be diagnosed by the long history, presence of clubbing, postural cough, coarse leathery rales over the affected part and reasonably normal general health. Once established, bronchiectasis is not curable by medical treatment.

Differential diagnosis

Bronchiectasis should be distinguished from chronic bronchitis and emphysema, lung abscess, tuberculosis, congenital cystic disease of the lung and malignancy. Lung abscess generally develops acutely. The right lower lobe is affected more often and the signs are localized. Tuberculosis is more common in the upper lobes and clubbing is not prominent in uncomplicated cases. Features like digital clubbing and copious sputum are seen in tuberculous bronchiectasis. Cystic disease is not uncommon. All age groups are affected. A long history or recurrent respiratory disease is present in the majority of cases. Clubbing is not prominent. The cysts may be localized or generalized. Clinical distinction from bronchiectasis is difficult. The presence of cysts in other organs like the kidneys, liver, etc, suggests the probability of congenital cystic disease of the lung. X-ray reveals the presence of soap bubble-like or ring shadows.

Diagnosis is confirmed by bronchography. This procedure is absolutely essential for determining the extent and type of bronchiectasis. Plain X-ray of the chest is not a reliable investigation to assess the site and extent of bronchiectasis.

Management

General measures include high protein diet, treatment of intercurrent infections, and removal of focal sepsis from the upper respiratory tract. Principles of specific therapy include postural drainage, administration of antibodies, respiratory exercises and in selected cases surgical excision. Postural drainage helps in clearing the bronchi and brings about relief. The patient should be instructed to practice postural drainage regularly. This gives relief of cough and also the foul smell. The fetid odor of the breath can be controlled by administering steam inhalations containing tincture benzoin or eucalyptus oil. The choice of antibiotic is determined by microbiological studies. Intermittent antibiotic therapy is required to clear infection and prevent exacerbation. The site of lesion may have to be excised if medical treatment fails.

Indications for surgery:

The following are the indications for surgery.

• The disease is localized to one lung or one segment and is not amenable to medical therapy.
• Socio-economic factors such as non-compliance by the patient
• Uncontrollable hemoptysis in which the site of origin of blood may be detected by emergency bronchoscopy and surgical resection has to be planned;
• To reduce the area of infection-even in bilateral disease sometimes surgical resection may have to be done on the more affected side, with a view to reducing the surface area of infection; and
• To remove an obstructive lesion which tends to perpetuate the condition, eg, bronchial growth or bronchostenosis?

I am Funom Theophilus Makama. I advertise through writing. As a platinum expert Author, I write lots of articles and hence promote interested websites, companies, groups, organizations, and communities through publishing and distributing my articles