Clinical explanation of Bronchiectasis

Permanent dilatation and distortion of the bronchi is called bronchiectasis. What is it’s effect to human health?

Etiology and Pathogenesis:

Most of the cases of bronchiectasis result from acquired causes.

• Obstruction to the bronchus due to any cause leads to distal collapse of the pulmonary segment. The pull on the bronchi by the collapsed alveoli leads to dilatation of the bronchi. In the initial stages this is reversible and the bronchi regain their normal size when the lung expands. If the obstruction persists, accumulation of mucus occurs distally, infection supervenes and the bronchial wall is destroyed permanently.

This results in permanent dilatation. The infective organisms are streptococci, pneumococci, Klebsiella, and anaerobes.

• Bronchiectasis may follow several viral infections without passing through the obstructive phase.

• Congenital defects in the bronchial wall lead to bronchiectasis. The classical example is Kartagener’s syndrome, which is characterized by dextrocardia, sinusitis, and defects of ciliary function in the bronchi and non-motile sperms.

• Middle lobe bronchiectasis is a sequel to pulmonary tuberculosis. This is caused by obstruction to the middle lobe bronchus by tuberculous glands. This is called “middle lobe syndrome” or “Block’s syndrome”.

Clinical features:

The clinical picture is very chronic, extending over several years.

The common site of lesion is the left lower lobe. Though children may be affected, usually symptoms manifest in early adulthood or middle age. Males are affected more than females. Digital clubbing is a prominent sign, sometimes being associated with hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.

Postural cough with the production of large quantities of purulent and foul smelling sputum is the presenting complaint in most cases. On keeping for sometime, the sputum settles into 3 layers as described under lung abscess. Hemoptysis may occur frequently. This may be mild or severe. Recurrent infections such as pneumonia may develop. Repeated affection of the same lobe or segment should suggest the possibility of underlying bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis sicca is the condition in which bronchiectasis presents with mild or severe hemoptysis without purulent sputum.

Physical examination may reveal impairment of the percussion note and diminution of respiratory sounds over the presence of coarse, persistent leathery rales. At times bronchiectasis may present with one of its complications. These include massive hemoptysis, recurrent pneumonia, emphysema, septicemia brain abscess, and cor pulmonale. Anemia develops in long standing cases due to chronic sepsis and recurrent hemoptysis. In untreated cases secondary amyloidosis may develop.

Diagnosis:

Bronchiectasis should be diagnosed by the long history, presence of clubbing, postural cough, coarse leathery rales over the affected part and reasonably normal general health. Once established, bronchiectasis is not curable by medical treatment.

Differential diagnosis

Bronchiectasis should be distinguished from chronic bronchitis and emphysema, lung abscess, tuberculosis, congenital cystic disease of the lung and malignancy. Lung abscess generally develops acutely. The right lower lobe is affected more often and the signs are localized. Tuberculosis is more common in the upper lobes and clubbing is not prominent in uncomplicated cases. Features like digital clubbing and copious sputum are seen in tuberculous bronchiectasis. Cystic disease is not uncommon. All age groups are affected. A long history or recurrent respiratory disease is present in the majority of cases. Clubbing is not prominent. The cysts may be localized or generalized. Clinical distinction from bronchiectasis is difficult. The presence of cysts in other organs like the kidneys, liver, etc, suggests the probability of congenital cystic disease of the lung. X-ray reveals the presence of soap bubble-like or ring shadows.

Diagnosis is confirmed by bronchography. This procedure is absolutely essential for determining the extent and type of bronchiectasis. Plain X-ray of the chest is not a reliable investigation to assess the site and extent of bronchiectasis.

Management

General measures include high protein diet, treatment of intercurrent infections, and removal of focal sepsis from the upper respiratory tract. Principles of specific therapy include postural drainage, administration of antibodies, respiratory exercises and in selected cases surgical excision. Postural drainage helps in clearing the bronchi and brings about relief. The patient should be instructed to practice postural drainage regularly. This gives relief of cough and also the foul smell. The fetid odor of the breath can be controlled by administering steam inhalations containing tincture benzoin or eucalyptus oil. The choice of antibiotic is determined by microbiological studies. Intermittent antibiotic therapy is required to clear infection and prevent exacerbation. The site of lesion may have to be excised if medical treatment fails.

Indications for surgery:

The following are the indications for surgery.

• The disease is localized to one lung or one segment and is not amenable to medical therapy.
• Socio-economic factors such as non-compliance by the patient
• Uncontrollable hemoptysis in which the site of origin of blood may be detected by emergency bronchoscopy and surgical resection has to be planned;
• To reduce the area of infection-even in bilateral disease sometimes surgical resection may have to be done on the more affected side, with a view to reducing the surface area of infection; and
• To remove an obstructive lesion which tends to perpetuate the condition, eg, bronchial growth or bronchostenosis?

I am Funom Theophilus Makama. I advertise through writing. As a platinum expert Author, I write lots of articles and hence promote interested websites, companies, groups, organizations, and communities through publishing and distributing my articles

PAT Testing Procedure

Portable Appliance Testing (or PAT Testing) is a legally required method of testing portable appliances. There are many stages that go towards the testing process. It will end with either a pass or fail result.

Portable Appliance Testing needs to look at certain safety elements. Amongst the things that can cause the failure is damage to cables, plugs and wires, overheating and signs of water damage. There should be no bare wires and no sign of internal damage.

The testing needs to be done according to the IEE (Institute of Electrical Engineers) guidelines. Before testing takes place anyone who is not part of the testing team should leave the premises.

The most basic part of the testing process is the visual inspection. Over 90% of problems are said to be found during this part of the process. It consists of the tester looking at the appliance and seeing if there are any obvious issues.

Here the tester will be able to see any poor wiring, cracked casing, bent pins and other damage. These are the most basic areas where appliances fail the PAT test.

The location that a particular appliance is used needs to be inspected. There must be sufficient ventilation (depending one the needs of the equipment), the area cannot be unreasonably damp, and controls to the equipment must be easily accessible.

An Earth Bond Test needs to be carried out during the testing process. Electrical Test Equipment is necessary for this part of the procedure. This is a test between the earth bond and continuity between the plug pin and external components. The voltage and test current is assessed during this process.

Other parts of the test are the insulation test and operational test.

The insulation test is necessary to ensure the insulation resistance is safe. The operational test simply consists of the tester switching the equipment on and testing out certain regular functions that it should perform, and making sure its performance is as expected.

Once testing has been completed the result of the PAT test should be clearly stated. The most common method of this is simply placing a label on the equipment. The label will say whether the appliance has passed or failed, and should also include more specific details of its condition. It will give the date of the test and the date at which another test will be necessary.

Equipment that is faulty or damaged should be removed from service immediately. It can then be determined whether or not the seriousness of the damage is sufficient for the equipment to be out of use.

PAT testing records are required to be kept for the duration of the life of the appliance. This is a legal necessity as it shows that tests have been carried out and the results of them.

Medical Equipment Marketplace

The medical equipment marketplace is replete with broad selections of equipment and supplies for medical, dental, and beauty salon equipment. There are several websites devoted to supplying such items. Trade networks exist within social commerce climates that constantly move products in this category every hour of every day. It is a highly competitive market and the information provided regarding the products is sometimes reliable and in other situations it is unreliable.

Within this market it is important to know certain facts. In order to learn these facts, you might have to critically shop around and ask many questions. When you do this, you will find contradictory information as well as useful information. You will see that some businesses selling these products are reliable and others are not. Ultimately it is confusing. One of the best companies that I have seen is Crystal Medical http://www.crystalmedical.co.uk.

Crystal Medical has a special niche in the medical equipment marketplace. They offer an exceptional variety of products in many categories including dental, medical, surgical, opthamalic, nursing, homecare, veterinary, pharmaceutical, and software categories. All of the products they offer are of high quality. Their dental equipment line is comprehensive and takes quality seriously.

Perhaps one of their best features is the flexible payment plans. With Crystal Medical, you may purchase medical equipment, dental equipment, and beauty salon equipment outright or you may rent the products on agreement for nominal fees. They have their payment plans set up in such a way that the equipment you purchase can pay for itself with added profit. Often these upgrades in equipment yield better business profits, easily offsetting the cost of the equipment itself.

Naturally, there are other organizations that offer similar equipment. You should research those as well. I believe you will discover that Crystal Medical offers the best products and the most practical payment plans. Considering the fact that they offer a 5 year warranty on all of the products they sell, it is a deal worth considering. Advance the technology of your healthcare practice with a reliable company and you will be assured better quality and cost.

Small Business Web Design – Enhance Online Presence

With an efficiently designed website, small business dealers can create a good impression and attract more people to their business. Small business web design services are now provided by leading companies in the field which aim at enhancing the online presence of their clients, thereby bringing more visitors to these websites.

Small business web design companies utilize the services of web developers and talented SEO professionals. Depending on the business owners’ needs, they carry out any sort of web design including data driven, custom, multimedia, flash, and E commerce. These providers can also redesign your existing website for a better look.

With creatively designed websites, proper communication with the website visitors can be attained. An ideal designer highlights the company products and information, appropriately blending graphics and advertising tools. Web designers take care of all aspects involved such as planning, designing, page layout and final finishing touches.

Besides having search engine optimized content, websites have to be effectively designed if you want to attract the right people to your business. To draw more customers, web designers normally utilize effective web design tools. Java, Flash, Video, Audio, CSS based and fast loadable websites are designed by the professionals. Incorporating innovative technology programs such as XML, MySQL, XHTML, PHP, and Javascript, they provide attractive website designs.

Professional website designing is available for all kinds of websites such as those dealing with real estate, finance, E-commerce, education, medicine, family, teens and more. Nowadays these services are available at economical rates to meet the needs of small businesses and home based businesses.

A perfectly designed website will be search engine friendly, meta tag optimized and properly linked with the other pages. So, if you wish to redesign your existing website or are planning to design a new one for your small business, ensure that you associate with a reliable and experienced web design service provider.

Electronic Cigarettes in Review

Electronic cigarettes are on the rise, and since their introduction to America in 2006, they have had overwhelming acceptance coupled with overwhelming questioning. Many questions focus on whether or not electronic cigarettes are actually healthier for the consumer, and what makes electronic cigarettes function.

Are Electronic Cigarettes Better for Your Health?

While many people have switched to electronic cigarettes to avoid the well-known harmful effects of tobacco and tobacco smoke, others are leery of switching due to a lack of research done on electronic cigarettes. However, various companies, reviewers and doctors have reviewed the product and there seems to be an overwhelming conclusion, best said by Dr. Travis Stork from the popular television showThe Doctors:

“The greatest issue with cigarettes is the 500+ other ingredients added, not just the nicotine.

Do we recommend this for non-smokers? Of course not, but for current smokers this is the most revolutionary device to date.”

Tobacco cigarettes include over 4,000 chemicals and toxins, while electronic cigarettes, generally speaking, have a limited number of ingredients, with the major ingredients being nicotine and propylene glycol. The majority of the additional ingredients, used as a flavoring agent or scent agent, are also found in fruits and breads.

What Makes Electronic Cigarettes Function?

Electronic cigarettes, unlike conventional tobacco cigarettes, contain no combustion and require no ignition to function. Electronic cigarettes are powered by a rechargeable battery and contain between two and four parts.

Let’s examine the two-part model.

The two-part model includes a battery and a cartridge. The design of the battery includes a flow sensor, which determines when the user is using the product and the powering battery agent. The design of the cartridge includes the nicotine cartridge and a catcher feature which ensures there will be no liquid nicotine leakage.

When a consumer takes a drag from the assembled electronic cigarette, the flow sensor powers the battery on and vaporizes the nicotine in the cartridge, producing a satisfying puff of vapor. The “smoke” coming out of the consumer’s mouth is not actually smoke but rather a completely harmless vapor.

Explore electronic cigarettes and determine for yourself if you think that electronic cigarettes are safer and more effective than traditional tobacco cigarettes.

The Best Dental Products for any Office

When you have your own dental business then there are supplies that you go through a regular basis and that need to be replenished. Fusion Dental is a company that you can find online that sells the very best Dental Products that you can find. Fusion is an awesome company because the have the best products but they are also continuing to improve and create new products. They want all dentists to be able to get the very best quality products at the very best price. They have some awesome innovations so it is possible to bring in new products every year.

Some of the Dental Products that can be found at Fusion are called fusion alginate, angle, bite, burs and much more. They have all the products that a dentist may need to create impressions and they also have great topical anesthetic gel. All of the products that they have are made to work for any and all of the patients needs. Along with all the products that a dentist may need for a patients teeth and impressions then they also carry drills. In order to be a great dentist then it is important to have the best products available.

Becoming a dentist is a lot of work and in order to become a success then it is necessary to take care of your clients. A good dentist wants to have the best products and they don’t want to run out of things. Fusion dental is a great company because they are easy to order products from. Ordering online is simple and they guarantee most of their products. Along with dental equipment they also carry all the cleansing products to keep your equipment sanitary. If you have a dental office, then make sure to buy the best products from Fusion.

When you take the time and the commitment to become a dentist then you are committing yourself for life. There are so many things that have to be done to keep a dentist office running smoothly and Dental Products are a big part of that. If you truly want to have satisfied patients, then you have to make sure to buy top quality products and to have plenty of them on hand. When you order online at Fusion then you can get everything that you need. It is really simple to order and they have wonderful customer service.

Oxygen Therapy: Is It a Cure for Disease?

Oxygen Therapy: Is it a Cure for Disease?

Recently, people have begun to emphasize the role of oxygen in potential disease fighting treatments. Though it is true that oxygen is an important element, one that can help your body function more efficiently, it is imperative for you to know the truth behind these claims. Oxygen therapy can have a positive effect on your health, but only if used correctly and to treat certain ailments.

What Is It?

Oxygen therapy is a medical treatment that provides your body with extra oxygen. There are several different ways in which this treatment is prescribed. Commonly, the element is breathed in from a metal cylinder through a tube. Depending upon the medical condition of the individual being treated, the oxygen will be inhaled through a mask, a nasal cannula (plastic tubes inserted into the nostrils), or a tracheostomy (a breathing tube placed within a surgically inserted hole in the neck).

Sometimes individuals are treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. During this process, they are placed in a pressurized chamber and breathe pure oxygen. The pressure allows the oxygen to infiltrate all of the tissues of the body. This encourages healing after serious wounds or severe infections. Other applications of oxygen therapy include treatment with ozone and hydrogen peroxide.

Oxygen, as it is sold for such treatments, is considered to be a medication. For this reason, you must have a prescription to obtain it.

What Diseases May Oxygen Treat?

The presence of high levels of oxygen often leads to the inability of bacteria, viruses, germs, and other harmful substances to survive. For this reason, oxygen therapy has been incorporated into treatment plans for a variety of ailments. Some of these include:

* Cancer: Nobel Prize winner Dr. Otto Warburg discovered that cancerous cells cannot grow in oxygen-rich environments.
* Respiratory diseases: Ailments of the lungs are often treated by oxygen therapy.
* Heart problems: Increased oxygen can prevent spasms of the heart muscles.
* Bacterial issues: E. coli and other dangerous bacterial issues can be treated with oxygen therapy.
* Viral diseases: The potential of oxygen therapy in this regard is large, as AIDS, the flu, hepatitis, and other serious illnesses are caused by viruses.
* Fungal infections: Candida albicans, a common parasitic fungus, has been successfully treated with ozone and hydrogen peroxide.
* Parasites: Malaria, among other diseases, can be treated with oxygen therapy.

It is a healthcare treatment that holds a great deal of potential. With further study, it may prove to be an important component in the treatment of more of the world’s most dangerous diseases.

With these fundamental principles behind this kind of therapy have come many liquid supplements that can chemically create oxygen within the body. The above methods described are powerful but what can be more powerful than getting this element right into the cells?

These type of supplements have been created to do just that. Unlike just breathing oxygen or even hydrogen peroxide therapy, these are designed to create this life sustaining mineral directly in the cells, tissues, and blood. There are many like AFA Blue Green Algae, Oxy E, OxyDHQ, Life Support and a few others.

Affordable Child Health Insurance in San Antonio Texas

Finding affordable health insurance is no easy task unless you are employed by a business that offers a health benefits package. Unfortunately, not everyone works, or works for an employer who offers a group health insurance plan to his or her employees. If you or your spouse doesn’t have affordable health insurance in San Antonio, Texas, how is your child supposed to obtain affordable child health insurance? Imagine trying to find affordable child health insurance for your child if you’re having difficulty finding affordable health insurance for yourself.

If you live in San Antonio, Texas, or anywhere in Texas for that matter, and have a child or children who are without adequate health insurance, you may want to look into Medicaid for Texas Children.

Medicaid for Texas Children is both a state and federal assistance program that provides children with excellent comprehensive health insurance at affordable prices or at no cost at all. To be eligible for Medicaid for Texas Children, a child must be a resident of the United States and of Texas, under the age of 19. The family of the child applying for Medicaid for Texas Children must meet the Medicaid of Texas Children income requirements.

If a child belongs to a family that receives Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, also referred to as TANF, the child will instantly qualify for Medicaid for Texas Children. Otherwise, the child’s eligibility is determined by the Texas Health and Human Services Commission, also referred to as HHSC. If a child is found to be eligible for Medicaid for Texas Children, his or her family’s financial status may be evaluated every half year or so to make sure the child is still eligible.

For more information about the Medicaid for Texas Children program, visit the Texas Department of Insurance Web site, or give them a call. You can also visit the Web site of the Texas Health and Human Services System.

Jobs & Career Employment After You Have Graduated From University

University graduates are still sought after, which makes a degree in this difficult financial climate worth its weight in gold. Graduate positions have actually increased over the last year, during the recession, and this is leading companies promoting their HR policies of capturing the best minds straight from university.

Jobs in IT, accounting, mechanical engineering, bio sciences are particularly impressive for the graduate as firms in these sectors offer high salaries and many graduate services that announce jobs, like MilkRound will advertise all of these particular jobs. Some jobs are obviously with companies that could feel the pain of the credit crunch but with any gain of experience, you will become immediately more employable even if the worst does happen to you.

Obviously qualifications and skills will get you so far, but with many graduates applying for the same jobs, how can you set yourself apart and differently then the rest? Well the answer is in your character traits, and making them visible to the recruiter. An attitude of enthusiasm, self- motivation and determination will go a long way in any job interview, some companies who offer jobs at entry level, will make a decision based on this alone!

Obviously verbal and writing skills are a necessity and having problem solving skills and being a team player will also endear you to the employer. It is also important to apply for jobs that you are skilled to do. Obviously jobs with 40k salaries look great and you’d love to be on that one, but you need to stay realistic and gain experience in your first few years after university, so apply for jobs you are happy to do.

If you have a Masters degree of an even higher education award then larger businesses in certain sectors may head hunt you, this is certainly true in the past in the banking, insurance and retail management positions. If you have just a bachelors degree then there are many opportunities out there but it will take you longer to get there!

The Benefits of Advertising – Business Internet Marketing

Marketing online has become a very profitable way of marketing products and services of the company. Online advertising is one method of advertising that uses the Internet to deliver the marketing message that can attract customers. World Wide Web is the main medium that can be used as part of online advertising to attract customers and spread the name of the company. There are also several examples of online advertising such as email marketing, banner ads or contextual ads on various search engines.

The benefits of advertising business internet marketing are:

1. Ad beneficial for sellers and buyers. This is mutually beneficial. Sellers use advertising to promote products on the internet by providing an explanation of the details of products both in price, usability, and benefits of these products. Buyers who come to the site, they know about the various products from these ads and can choose according to their wishes.
2. Before the Internet, advertising is limited to newspapers, television and so on. Along with the development of the Internet, we can use a variety of ways to advertise our businesses either through email or posting through various websites. Through advertising on the internet allows you to expand the business globally, not limited to time and place.
3. Internet is becoming increasingly popular in line with the number of people who use these systems and tools. Almost all people use online facilities to perform the work as they use email to send and receive the official letter to the company or using social media such as twitter, Facebook, and others. By using advertising on the internet the more people will see and some of them will make a purchase.
4. Advertise your business with the internet; you will be able to reach very specific target audience through this online facility. This is often referred to as SEO Optimize system where you use specific keywords for specific markets. There is also the term PPC or pay per click where you need to pay for keywords that you are advertising on the internet.
5. Online ads can reach every person in the whole world in a small time period. Some tools or software is provided either free or paid; where you can choose which best suit your business. On average a good website can be optimized in a few months and with time running it will be increasing visitors and buyers so that we get a return on investment.
6. Cheap online advertising as a source of advertising would cost so much while placing an ad in the newspaper or television will be more expensive than online advertising. You can also get a clear picture of how much money he would spend and how much profit from your investment.

If you have not done in the advertising business internet marketing, it is good you start to learn the details and start running. This not only shortens your time in business, but you can increase your profits away from what you get. Of course, learning from the right sources and correct.