Clinical explanation of Bronchiectasis

Permanent dilatation and distortion of the bronchi is called bronchiectasis. What is it’s effect to human health?

Etiology and Pathogenesis:

Most of the cases of bronchiectasis result from acquired causes.

• Obstruction to the bronchus due to any cause leads to distal collapse of the pulmonary segment. The pull on the bronchi by the collapsed alveoli leads to dilatation of the bronchi. In the initial stages this is reversible and the bronchi regain their normal size when the lung expands. If the obstruction persists, accumulation of mucus occurs distally, infection supervenes and the bronchial wall is destroyed permanently.

This results in permanent dilatation. The infective organisms are streptococci, pneumococci, Klebsiella, and anaerobes.

• Bronchiectasis may follow several viral infections without passing through the obstructive phase.

• Congenital defects in the bronchial wall lead to bronchiectasis. The classical example is Kartagener’s syndrome, which is characterized by dextrocardia, sinusitis, and defects of ciliary function in the bronchi and non-motile sperms.

• Middle lobe bronchiectasis is a sequel to pulmonary tuberculosis. This is caused by obstruction to the middle lobe bronchus by tuberculous glands. This is called “middle lobe syndrome” or “Block’s syndrome”.

Clinical features:

The clinical picture is very chronic, extending over several years.

The common site of lesion is the left lower lobe. Though children may be affected, usually symptoms manifest in early adulthood or middle age. Males are affected more than females. Digital clubbing is a prominent sign, sometimes being associated with hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.

Postural cough with the production of large quantities of purulent and foul smelling sputum is the presenting complaint in most cases. On keeping for sometime, the sputum settles into 3 layers as described under lung abscess. Hemoptysis may occur frequently. This may be mild or severe. Recurrent infections such as pneumonia may develop. Repeated affection of the same lobe or segment should suggest the possibility of underlying bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis sicca is the condition in which bronchiectasis presents with mild or severe hemoptysis without purulent sputum.

Physical examination may reveal impairment of the percussion note and diminution of respiratory sounds over the presence of coarse, persistent leathery rales. At times bronchiectasis may present with one of its complications. These include massive hemoptysis, recurrent pneumonia, emphysema, septicemia brain abscess, and cor pulmonale. Anemia develops in long standing cases due to chronic sepsis and recurrent hemoptysis. In untreated cases secondary amyloidosis may develop.

Diagnosis:

Bronchiectasis should be diagnosed by the long history, presence of clubbing, postural cough, coarse leathery rales over the affected part and reasonably normal general health. Once established, bronchiectasis is not curable by medical treatment.

Differential diagnosis

Bronchiectasis should be distinguished from chronic bronchitis and emphysema, lung abscess, tuberculosis, congenital cystic disease of the lung and malignancy. Lung abscess generally develops acutely. The right lower lobe is affected more often and the signs are localized. Tuberculosis is more common in the upper lobes and clubbing is not prominent in uncomplicated cases. Features like digital clubbing and copious sputum are seen in tuberculous bronchiectasis. Cystic disease is not uncommon. All age groups are affected. A long history or recurrent respiratory disease is present in the majority of cases. Clubbing is not prominent. The cysts may be localized or generalized. Clinical distinction from bronchiectasis is difficult. The presence of cysts in other organs like the kidneys, liver, etc, suggests the probability of congenital cystic disease of the lung. X-ray reveals the presence of soap bubble-like or ring shadows.

Diagnosis is confirmed by bronchography. This procedure is absolutely essential for determining the extent and type of bronchiectasis. Plain X-ray of the chest is not a reliable investigation to assess the site and extent of bronchiectasis.

Management

General measures include high protein diet, treatment of intercurrent infections, and removal of focal sepsis from the upper respiratory tract. Principles of specific therapy include postural drainage, administration of antibodies, respiratory exercises and in selected cases surgical excision. Postural drainage helps in clearing the bronchi and brings about relief. The patient should be instructed to practice postural drainage regularly. This gives relief of cough and also the foul smell. The fetid odor of the breath can be controlled by administering steam inhalations containing tincture benzoin or eucalyptus oil. The choice of antibiotic is determined by microbiological studies. Intermittent antibiotic therapy is required to clear infection and prevent exacerbation. The site of lesion may have to be excised if medical treatment fails.

Indications for surgery:

The following are the indications for surgery.

• The disease is localized to one lung or one segment and is not amenable to medical therapy.
• Socio-economic factors such as non-compliance by the patient
• Uncontrollable hemoptysis in which the site of origin of blood may be detected by emergency bronchoscopy and surgical resection has to be planned;
• To reduce the area of infection-even in bilateral disease sometimes surgical resection may have to be done on the more affected side, with a view to reducing the surface area of infection; and
• To remove an obstructive lesion which tends to perpetuate the condition, eg, bronchial growth or bronchostenosis?

I am Funom Theophilus Makama. I advertise through writing. As a platinum expert Author, I write lots of articles and hence promote interested websites, companies, groups, organizations, and communities through publishing and distributing my articles

Treatment Facility At Drug Rehab Center

Drug addiction is among the serious plague in the most of the western countries people are struggling with so many years. People who are

addicted to any form of drugs always find themselves in trouble in their professional as well as personal life. On of the lethal fact about the

drug addiction is that it not only affects the addicted individual but also puts bad impact on friends, family members especially on children. In

the recent survey, it has been noticed that the most of the people who get admitted in a reputed center for drug addiction treatment

Minnesota are mainly the teenagers or the young generation people. Thus, it becomes mandatory for the people as well as their family

members to admit in a treatment center before this plague takes your near and dear ones life away from you.

Generally, it has been seen that there are lots of people who hesitate in going for drug rehab in their respective state just because they do

not find an appropriate drug rehab center for the suitable healing program. Therefore, it is always better to find a treatment center according

to the retention factor or success rate which will help you in selecting a best one for your near and dear ones. Retention factor or success

rate can be defined as the number of individuals admits for a particular treatment program to the number of individual completed that

treatment programs. Here are some important and basic information about the treatment program that most of the drug rehab center usually

provide for the addicts in order to get rid of addiction with safe and ease.

Detoxification Treatment: Detoxification treatment is one of the first and foremost treatment that most of the treatment center provides to

patients. In this two to three weeks treatment program, the treatment professional as well as medical staff try to eliminate the toxic materials

with the help of suitable medicines. During this period patients have to stay in the drug rehab center so that they can deal with the withdrawal

symptoms which is usually shown by addicts in this period. In this treatment program the chances of relapses of higher because these

patients are kept away from the daily usage of drugs and they show various withdrawal symptoms like nausea, vomiting and pain in the

body. Once the detoxification program is over, treatment center offers different rehabilitation program such as outpatient and inpatient

treatment facility.

Treatment facility: Inpatient treatment program are also called as residential treatment facility. In this program the patients have to stay in the

drug rehab center where the patient have to stay in residential setting under the close eye of medical professional. And other type of

treatment facility is intensive outpatient treatment program where the patient don’t need to stay in the center for the treatment. However, they

have to frequently visit the treatment center for treatment and medication.

Hence, for the purpose of acquiring best and suitable drug addiction treatment Minnesota residents have to be careful in their selection.

Comparing Online Travel Services To Your Local Travel Agent

Sites such as Expedia, Orbitz, and Travelocity claim to offer the best price – sometimes even guaranteed. They may even claim to offer the best rates on a luxury world cruise, a trip that travel wholesalers publicly prefer to be sold by agents. The emergence of online travel sites have put many agencies out of business, and claim to have conquered the consumer base by offering quality product at a lower cost. When you call your local travel agency and ask for a price quote on an air and hotel luxury travel vacation package, most consumers will check against one of the more popular travel websites to see what prices better. True, two thirds of the time, you will find that the Internet will beat the travel agent price by about $150. The travel website will assure you that it is the same package. The resorts and hotels are aware that you are going to be in the most unfavorable rooms, in fact, that is why they sold them to the Internet travel site at a discounted rate in the first place.

Travel service sites proudly proclaim that they are able to further save customers money by selling large volumes of travel and collecting a smaller fee. Orbitz and Travelocity do have a large volume of travel reservations made, but what little they make in commission they make back in changed or canceled reservations. Most travel agencies offer a travel insurance that covers you and your travel companions if you should have to cancel for a medical or personal emergency.

American Express Travel offers a cancel for any reason insurance that even covers your airline tickets. These Internet booking engines are now beginning to offer “insurance,” but it rarely covers cancellations in full. Your local travel agent is there to offer the customer care you need back at home while you’re traveling abroad. When it comes to planning luxury travel vacation, you are truly better off using a travel agent. If you don’t like your room, your travel agent can have it fixed in a matter of moments. Travel agents are not focused on quantity, but quality. So travel safe, not sorry, and call a travel agent to hear more benefits that each agency offers their clients

Longstay Travel Insurance: Extend Your Travel Stay

Whenever we decide to travel abroad, we always get the think of taking travel insurance. If you are an occasional traveler you’ll probably buy your insurance from the travel agent. But if you travel more than twice a year, it is much more cost effective to have one insurance lasting all year round, than buying one every time you travel. If you are travelling for a long time then its better to take longstay travel insurance.

Before buying any longstay travel insurance, it is better to go through the whole policy. Health concerns which are rather severe as well as problems brought about by alcohol and drug uses are oftentimes excluded from the full coverage a client is entitled to. War and terrorism clauses can be excluded in most policies to protect both the company and the traveler with the latter being influenced not to plan a trip to such hazardous nations. Travel insurance is an agreement or a contract which can offer a traveler with an adequate amount of assistance that can be beneficial when traveling so it would be smart to compare a list of policies beforehand.

There are different forms of insurance which is hard to classified but considering the durations, travel insurance is further divided in three types:

* Single trip,
* Multi-trip and
* Annual / Long stay

“Long stay” insurance is the most important and attractive part of the travel insurance because for the large number of travelers who planned their vacations for more numbers of days / many months. It not helps you only in travelling plans but also a safeguard for cancellation charges, luggage and personal belongings, financial investments, your health and well being and most important to give you sense of peace. Companies are offering much best coverage to the customers who are buying long stay like international travel insurance, top up insurance etc. The main benefit of this insurance is the customization of coverage. A customer of long stay travel insurance can optimize their coverage as per their need; he should take help with their insurance adviser. Go for most appropriate coverage often their charges may be more than the standard one. The customers must be clear about their need and the ignorance.

Oxygen Therapy: Is It a Cure for Disease?

Oxygen Therapy: Is it a Cure for Disease?

Recently, people have begun to emphasize the role of oxygen in potential disease fighting treatments. Though it is true that oxygen is an important element, one that can help your body function more efficiently, it is imperative for you to know the truth behind these claims. Oxygen therapy can have a positive effect on your health, but only if used correctly and to treat certain ailments.

What Is It?

Oxygen therapy is a medical treatment that provides your body with extra oxygen. There are several different ways in which this treatment is prescribed. Commonly, the element is breathed in from a metal cylinder through a tube. Depending upon the medical condition of the individual being treated, the oxygen will be inhaled through a mask, a nasal cannula (plastic tubes inserted into the nostrils), or a tracheostomy (a breathing tube placed within a surgically inserted hole in the neck).

Sometimes individuals are treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. During this process, they are placed in a pressurized chamber and breathe pure oxygen. The pressure allows the oxygen to infiltrate all of the tissues of the body. This encourages healing after serious wounds or severe infections. Other applications of oxygen therapy include treatment with ozone and hydrogen peroxide.

Oxygen, as it is sold for such treatments, is considered to be a medication. For this reason, you must have a prescription to obtain it.

What Diseases May Oxygen Treat?

The presence of high levels of oxygen often leads to the inability of bacteria, viruses, germs, and other harmful substances to survive. For this reason, oxygen therapy has been incorporated into treatment plans for a variety of ailments. Some of these include:

* Cancer: Nobel Prize winner Dr. Otto Warburg discovered that cancerous cells cannot grow in oxygen-rich environments.
* Respiratory diseases: Ailments of the lungs are often treated by oxygen therapy.
* Heart problems: Increased oxygen can prevent spasms of the heart muscles.
* Bacterial issues: E. coli and other dangerous bacterial issues can be treated with oxygen therapy.
* Viral diseases: The potential of oxygen therapy in this regard is large, as AIDS, the flu, hepatitis, and other serious illnesses are caused by viruses.
* Fungal infections: Candida albicans, a common parasitic fungus, has been successfully treated with ozone and hydrogen peroxide.
* Parasites: Malaria, among other diseases, can be treated with oxygen therapy.

It is a healthcare treatment that holds a great deal of potential. With further study, it may prove to be an important component in the treatment of more of the world’s most dangerous diseases.

With these fundamental principles behind this kind of therapy have come many liquid supplements that can chemically create oxygen within the body. The above methods described are powerful but what can be more powerful than getting this element right into the cells?

These type of supplements have been created to do just that. Unlike just breathing oxygen or even hydrogen peroxide therapy, these are designed to create this life sustaining mineral directly in the cells, tissues, and blood. There are many like AFA Blue Green Algae, Oxy E, OxyDHQ, Life Support and a few others.

Activity Internet Marketing Report, Internet Marketing Information

INTERNET MARKETING INFORMATION

NETWORKING

SCAMS, FRAUDS

FAKE E CARDS

HOLIDAY RENTALS

DROP SHIP

One of the first things you should do is check the government regulations that effect Internet marketing. Two of the main regulation deals with e mails. You can only send out your offer to persons who have contacted you about your offer or (a one time only) persons who have contact you with their offer.

You are required to enclose in all your e mails, your e mail address, your business address and phone. If you will be using a autoresponder you are required to have a unsubscribe link, so persons who may have contacted to receive your offers, newsletter, etc. can click on and have their name removed from your list.

It is also very important to remember if you join a MLM as a affiliate the firm you are marketing for meet the regulations, as you too could be charged if they make outrages claims about their product, how much money can be made etc.

The FTC enters Internet, telemarketing, identity theft and other fraud-related complaints into Consumer Sentinel, a secure, online database available to hundreds of civil and criminal law enforcement agencies in the U.S.

and abroad.

Get your own website, avoid the free ones offered by MLM’s. Don’t be restricted to one firm’s product with a free website.

With a free web site you would have no chance of being listed on the search engines, as there would be hundreds of web sites with the same offers. All you are doing is working for free, paying for advertisements for someone else’s products. If there was some product you wanted to sell from a MLM firm, you can join as a reseller and place just the product you want to handle on your website.

NETWORKING

You didn’t learn it at school, or at the office.

Would you believe your mother?

Networking is more then shaking hands, and giving out business cards. Forget about the endless networking skills you may have learned at the office. We just have to put the few lessons mother taught us into practice. As a kid we were always in a hurry to find something better. Our mothers taught us patience.

If your in a hurry you miss the value that can be built taking time with building relations in networking. Establishing a relationship by taking time, gives you a solid framework in networking building.

Your mother worked hard as an example. This is one of the better examples in networking she gave you. That’s why it is called networking, not sit work. For networking to be successful you have to work hard and put out the effort.

Remember her telling you to share your things with others? Some of our best resources are time, money, and information we are willing to give to the relationship. They appreciate us when we are willing to give to the relationship.

She always made you clean up after yourself. In networking, follow-up is required. Whether it’s a promise to meet someone, or just a thank you is one of the most important lessons of networking. These life lessons we learned from mother during childhood are a solid basis’s for strong networking skills.
Thank you mother for all your help.

The biggest time spend in selling, more so in mail order or on the Internet is developing a relationship with your customer and building trust. If you did a good job in the first two, closing a sale will take the smallest of your time spend with your customer.

SCAMS, FRAUDS

Fake e cards.
You get a message with a link to an online greeting card but, when you click it, you end up with a virus on your PC. A couple of simple rules here. Delete any messages that come from someone you don’t know or that don’t address you by name. If they come from someone you know, email that person to check that they sent it before clicking on.

HOLIDAY RENTALS

2009 has seen a surge in ads offering bogus vacation rentals. You pay a deposit or even in full to get a key and that’s the last you hear of them. Scammers are experts at creating phoney look-alike sites where you land after mistyping an address or by clicking on a link supplied in the e mail or ad. Always type in the URL and don’t just click on the link.

DROP SHIPPERS
You can get products to sell via e bay or/and your website by using the services of a drop shipper. A reliable drop shipper will not ask you for a fee. They will allow you to copy pictures of the products they sell. Prices are about half you would pay for retail.

When writing articles to directories, we are not allowed to list URL’s for places to go for free information, such as drop shippers, ebay, and other places. If your interested you can go to our website and in our archives there is over 2 years of free Internet information listing with URL’s. My website is listed in the article source at the bottom of this article.

If you have a website they will allow you to move any listing on their site to yours. You set your price on the product/s you transfer. When an order comes in place the order they will ship it out for you under your shipping label and not include any of their material.

A good way to promote is join as an affiliate, transfer a couple specials onto your site, with a link back to your affiliate page. The cost of setting up a web site is minimum. Check out my website archive for drop ship firms. Transfer a couple specials onto your site, with a link back to your affiliate page. The cost of setting up a web site is minimum. Check out my website archive for drop ship firms.

Disclaimer:
The Author of this article is not responsible for accuracy or completeness nor shall he be held liable for any damage or loss arising out of or in any way related to the information or utilization of it.

How To Raise Real Estate Investment Capital

Why Your Rich Uncle Won’t Invest with YOU!

Have you ever had a rich friend, uncle, or neighbor that will not open up their wallet to do business with you? There may be many reasons they refuse to do business with you. Let’s look at three common reasons and what you can do to get their attention:

1. Friends and family do not want money to get in the way of relationships. Disagreements over money have caused many rich families to become divided. One way around this is to create a company and make them a partner. Show them how investing in our company is no different from investing in a company in the stock market (except you both have more control). Set clear expectations of what each of you will provide to the company. If you’re smart, you’ll show them all the things you will do and all they have to do is write a check and examine the monthly/quarterly reports you send them. Your friends and family might also be more comfortable if you have other investors as well. There are many ways you can ease their fears and finding what those fears are is a good first step.

2. They don’t understand the investment. There is an old saying, “A confused mind says no”. Just because someone has accumulated some wealth does not mean they understand real estate investing. Here’s where you have to be very clear on what you do. You can’t overwhelm your investors with the blow by blow details. They need to know what you will do with their money, how they are protected, what their return will be and when they will receive payment. That is not to say you should hide any pertinent details, however they don’t care that you will be painting the rooms off-white.

3. You lack credibility. Let’s face it, unless you have a huge investment portfolio you are still somewhat unproven. And for that matter, friends and family have known us at our worst (they remember we got a D on a test back in the third grade). This is where your board of advisors and partners become extremely important. While Aunt Susie might be willing to loan you a couple hundred dollars, she wants to know her $100K is going to come back to her. If you have done some deals, make sure to highlight them in written format. Additionally, correctly chosen business partners or advisors with experience can also increase your credibility. To help with your personal credibility put together a professional looking credibility kit. To help with the credibility of the deal, put together all the numbers, pictures and a summary of the investment in a professional manner. (Personally I did not invest with a known “guru” because the presentation wasn’t done professionally). The details in the presentations matter.

Not all of your friends, family or neighbors with money will do business with you. If you want to increase your success rate then make sure you are sending out a clear, concise, and professional message. After you’ve done a few successful investments, they’ll be asking you to get involved.

Finding the Best Corporate Travel Services

Corporate travel services should be chosen with great care. Engaging the right limousine company to provide corporate travel services is vital to the success of a business.
Important points to consider while making a decision are the ability of the company to adjust to the needs of the business engaging their service, the companies experience in the needed area, and the availability of the company to take care of even the minutest of details.

Creativity is essential for providing corporate travel services to clients that have unique needs or accommodation requests. If a business needs to engage someone to facilitate the performance of an animal show in Tibet, they will need an innovative team working for them to see that the event is successful. When setting up overseas conferences or events, a team of professionals assisting in the varied details that come with dealing with overseas governments and cultures is essential to its success. Sometimes the details can be tricky and require creative solutions where cross-cultural relations are concerned.

Hand-in-hand with the need for creative solutions is the benefit of corporate travel services that are familiar with the area where the event or meeting is taking place. Companies with knowledge and experience can help avoid annual festivals and local events that may make putting on the business’ event difficult. A good limo company can meet this need for complex logistics with enthusiasm and ingenuity.

This attention to detail can help insure a good return on the company’s investment in the event or meeting. Proper management of these details leads to profitable future working relationships between the travel service and the limousine company engaging them.

Affordable Kentucky Individual Health Insurance

Most Kentucky residents get health insurance through an employer-sponsored group health plan. If you do not come under such a plan, thats when you should consider finding affordable Kentucky individual health insurance to cover yourself and your family. Individual and family health insurance plans are available for newborns on up to the seniors at age 65, self-employed and unemployed persons and students.

Selecting an Affordable Health Insurance Plan

Insurance companies offer different kinds of private individual health insurance plans for Kentucky residents. These include indemnity health insurance (fee-for-service), HMO (health maintenance organization) plans, PPO (preferred provider organization) plans, POS (point-of-service) plans, and HSA (health savings account) plans. A greater choice of doctors and hospitals usually means that a plan will cost more.

Leading insurance companies offering affordable health insurance in Kentucky include Humana, Blue Cross Blue Shield, Aetna and United. They offer various kinds of policies depending on the kind of coverage you need and the state of your health. A health plan would cost more for a person with health issues. However, according to recent legislation, individuals cannot be denied health insurance because of a pre-existing condition.

The best way to find an affordable Kentucky health plan is first see how much premium you can afford to pay and then look for a plan that meets your budget as well as the health needs of your family. You need to compare the quotes for the plans from various health insurance companies. Premiums differ for different kinds of individual health plans. Besides traditional health coverage and HSA-qualified High Deductible Health Plans, it would be helpful if there is a provision to add on optional benefits such as dental, life and supplemental accident coverage for an additional cost.

Get Professional Advice

Professional companies that represent leading insurance providers in Kentucky offer expert guidance on selecting the right kind of health insurance plan. They can help you get quotes and compare them to get affordable individual Kentucky health insurance.

What is also important in auto insurance rates is the driver’s gender…

Auto insurance quotes are affected by a number of things – your age, your gender, the place where your residence is located, etc. Statistics based on age and gender makes it possible for auto insurance companies to determine how cheap or how expensive your auto insurance quotes will be. This helps for them to see whether you are a high risk or a low risk client and of course, the “riskier” a client you are, the higher the rates.

Statistics show that males who are 16 to 25 years old are riskier clients compared to the female counterparts. Although some may say that this is gender bias, it is most definitely not because based on years of study on this subject, males in this age group have a tendency to drive recklessly as opposed to the females in the same age group. Do not worry though because rates even out between males and females as you grow older. However, there are still some insurance providers that still offer lower for women even if they are already over 25. This is where shopping around comes in handy because even if most carriers even out their rates at a certain point, there are those who follow a different formula.

Aside from your age and gender, other things are considered – your zip code for example will also help insurers make a right decision on how much you should be paying for your auto insurance policy . Based on gender, males drive more frequently than females and this makes them more susceptible to getting into accidents and as mentioned before, young males have a tendency to push their limits in terms of speed and are even more likely to drive when drunk, tired, or sleepy.

If you are a good driver i.e. one with a clean record with the DMV, you can get lower auto insurance quotes from reputable insurance companies. If you have already found the cheapest auto insurance quotes you can find, it is time to choose which policy is the right one for you.